The development of mammalian cytogenetics was the result of simple but major technical advances. These were the demonstration by Hsu (1952) that the morphology of mammalian chromosomes could be greatly enhanced by hypotonic shock treatment, the tissue culture techniques as used by Tjio and Levan (1956) to demonstrate that man had 46 chromosomes and the lymphocyte culture technique of Moorehead, N owell, Mellman Battips and H ungerford (1960). However the real impetus to human and animal cytogenetics came from three almost simultaneous but distinct clinical discoveries involving chromosome aneuploidy. These included the findings of trisomy 21 in association with regular mongolism in man (Lejeune, Gautier and Tu r pin, 1959), chromatin positive Klinefelter’s syndrome and the X X Y sex chromosome constitution (Jacobs and Strong, 1959) and the XO chromosome complement in women with Turner's syndrome (Ford,
 Polani, de Almeida and Br ig g s, 1959).

A. N Bruere

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 1, Madrid, Spain, 151–175, 1974
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