Milk and beefo production have developed along two rather different paths - separate by animals from specialized dairy and beef breeds or jointly by animals of dual purpose breeds.  While specailization is common in industrialised countries overseas, dual purpose cattle were traditional in Europe.  Recent developments, in particular cheap concentrate and a favourable milk price, have made introudction of genes of specialized dairy breeds attractive and a large proportion of present day European milk cattle are grades of various degrees of US and Canadian dairy strains.  While the superiority in milk production of the crosses is considerable their beef value appears to be noticeably impaired.

H. Hoffmann, F. Pirchner, L. Dempfle

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 5. Plenary sessions, , 399–413, 1982
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