Data for later lactations are generally not a random sample - cows reaching a second or later lactation have been subject to culling decisions based, at least partially, on their dairy performance. Hence, cne of the assumptions underlying standard analysis of variance (AOV) type procedures does not hold and biased estimates of variance/covariance (var/cov) components have to be expected. Yet, in estimating genetic parameters for later lactations, this bias has by and large been ignored.

K. Meyer

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 7. Symposia (1), , 256–260, 1982
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