In certain traits dam contributes strongly to the phenotypic value of her products not because of her gene tranmission but due to her environmental effects on them; for instance, weaning weight greatly depends on maternal lactation. This component, environmental for the products, can have a genetic and an environmental fraction for the dam. The latter'could go on decomposing into fractions attributed to grand-maternal, great-grand-maternal... genotypes and environments. So the phenotypic value of each trait could be divided into several fractions: the effect of the individual's genotype '(direct genetic effect) and of the non-maternal environment (direct environmental effect); maternal genetic and environmental effects; grand-maternal genetic and environmental effects, etc.

Agustin Blasco, M. Baselga, F. Garcia, J. Deltoro

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 7. Symposia (1), , 456-461, 1982
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