This paper provides a detailed summary of one effort to develop a new breed of cattle from a composite in eastern Africa. In the late 1950s the Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, after years of marginal results with straight exotic and indigenous cattle improvement, started a program to develop a dual-purpose zebu-type animal for the peasant cattle owner, from a foundation including the Tanzania Shorthorned Zebu, Boran, Ankole, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, and mixed European breeding, in varying levels. Historic and contemporary information is presented on breed development strategies; growth, reproduction, lactation, and carcass performance; and breeding stock distribution. Regularly monitored records indicate that in general the Mpwapwa, as the composite was named, increased weight by 25% to 30%, and milk yield by 250% to 350% as compared to indigenous stock under similar management. The paper discusses the more important non-biological factors which influenced genetic progress, field testing, and breed acceptance.

W. R Getz, H. G Hutchison, M. L Kyomo, A. M Macha, D. Mpiri

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XI. Genetics of reproduction, lactation, growth, adaptation, disease, and parasite resistance., , 493–498, 1986
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