Fish are more efficient in feed conversion than many species of farm animals and provide low-fat, high-quality protein at a relatively low cost for human and animal consumption. Global oceanic pollution and overfishing pose a serious threat to marine food resources just when demand for fish products is rising. Genetic improvement of aquatic species is still in its infancy but is rapidly expanding. Advances in genetic engineering are expected to significantly improve genetic resistance to disease and tolerance to extreme environmental conditions and to develop new species of aquarium and sport fishes. Clever polyculture also can increase productivity and profitability. Management techniques have improved significantly, and the changes have been adapted by some growers. Investments in aquaculture are expected to remain attractive and support expansion of the aquaculture industry.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume X. Breeding programs for swine, poultry, and fish., , 363–372, 1986
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