The consequences of changes in the rate of involuntary replacement on 
the optimum replacement policy of dairy cows were determined by the 
dynamic programming technique.
A reduction in the rate of involuntary replacement allowed a higher 
voluntary replacemen trate. This increased the financial advantage 
but it reduced the lengthening of the average herd life.
The sires' predicted difference for milk production had a considera
ble effect on the average herd life of the daughters. However, selection on milk production will not automatically lead to a longer 
average herd life.

Johan AM van Arendonk

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume IX. Breeding programs for dairy and beef cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats., , 95–100, 1986
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