Milk production in the temperate climates accounts for 66% of the world milk output. In North America only about 20% of beef o r i ginates from dairy herds, while in Europe beef production is a b y product of dairying. Several studies showed small genetic correlations between milk and beef traits, thus suggesting the possibility of simultaneous selection for both characteristics. European b r e e d ing programs include dual testing of bulls for milk and beef.

A. Zarnecki, M. Stolzman

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume IX. Breeding programs for dairy and beef cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats., , 62–72, 1986
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