There is a range of production-marketing systems in practice and different current breeding stocks are used to maximise economic benefits. Several stocks may be used in one system, to benefit from heterosis, to complement each other and to fill specialised roles. In genetic improvement, the interests of the different sections of industry in an efficient market are not at variance (Moav, 1973) but are all met by reducing costs per unit of product value (Dickerson, 1970, Smith, James and Brascamp, 1986). The scope for genetic improvement in one or many stocks is considered, both for current sets of objectives and for uncertain future conditions. If the overall economic benefits are high relative to the cost of improving one stock, there will be considerable scope and increased benefits from selecting different stocks for different sets of objectives, to provide flexibility and insurance for the future. The dilemma is posed that improvement in the national interest has much scope for variety but is usually constrained, while the scope for independent breeders is restricted, yet they endeavour to breed and market a range of breeding stocks.

C. Smith

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume X. Breeding programs for swine, poultry, and fish., , 14–22, 1986
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