In the developed countries, most of them located in the temperate regions, the selection conducted for centuries by breeders and researchers, together with a recent application of modern technologies, originated breeds with high production levels. The increasing need for animal products in the developing countries, mostly located in the intertropical zone, is causing a quick substitution of the "local” breeds. Even though these "local” breeds present lower production levels than the exotic ones, they are extremely well adapted to the tropics, where'they have been naturally selected for centuries. In many cases, it has been observed that the replacement of "local" by exotic breeds has led to very disadvantageous situations, due to the lack of adaptation of the latter to the tropics. In general, well planned crossbreeding programmes are much more appropriate than the upgrading of the "local" breeds with those selected for the temperate zones.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIV. Dairy cattle genetics and breeding, adaptation and conservation., , 447–448, 1990
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