Breeders of dairy cattle have given more credence to prominent cow families than scientists have been able to justify. It Is well known that daughters of sires and maternal grandslres much more accurately predict progeny tests than do the records of bull mothers. Although preferential treatment is likely to be a major cause of lack of predictability from records of bull mothers, cytoplasmic Inheritance can be another biological reason for the lack of predictability. The mechanism of cytoplasmic Inheritance likely is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria are transmitted from a female to both male and female progeny, but It has not been demonstrated that males transmit mtDNA to their progeny. 

A. E Freeman

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIV. Dairy cattle genetics and breeding, adaptation and conservation., , 140–144, 1990
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