In most European countries a large proportion of beef production comes from pure dairy or dual-purpose breeds. In these, and in specialised beef breeds, beef merit is usually assessed in a performance test, followed by a progeny test. Although more comprehensive selection goals and criteria are used in beef breeds, herd sizes and Al use are often low, and the methods of estimating breeding value are usually less sophisticated than those in dairy or dual- purpose breeds. Improved evaluation methods, and the application of current and developing reproductive technologies will enhance future rates of genetic improvement.

G. Simm, D. E Steane, N. R Wray

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XV. Beef cattle, sheep and pig genetics and breeding, fibre, fur and meat quality., , 231–243, 1990
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