Available conservation techniques are presented in this review : non inbred colonies and control strains, farm populations, in vitro methods. In a ll conservation programs it is necessary to manage genetic variability in some small living population. Two general recommendations are made : the variance in the number of male (or female) progeny for male (or female) parents should be as low as possible ; the population should be split up in breeding groups. Developments of the tools of molecular biology w ill increase the efficiency of conservation methods. Two questions have s till no clear answers : what is the actual efficiency of the various rules proposed to maintain genetic variability ? Is there really any need to preserve genetic variability 7

H. de Rochambeau, C. Chevalet

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIV. Dairy cattle genetics and breeding, adaptation and conservation., , 434–441, 1990
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