In recent yers several traits were improved in different animal species.  The development was forced by traditional breeding methods based on phenotypic assessment ie production, reproduction and viability.  The estimates of such complex phenotypes are the result of a combined action of numerous genes and environmental factors.

H. Geldermann

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIII. Plenary lectures, molecular genetics and mapping, selection, prediction and estimation., , 97–106, 1990
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