Potential increases in productivity from selection for production traits is constrained by several factors. These include: 1) the heritabilities and genetic correlations among milk and milk components, 2) biological limits on nutrient intake, and 3) limitations resulting from decreased reproductive efficiency and/or increased health problems associated with increased milk and component yields.

R. E Pearson, W. E Vinson, T. R Meinert

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIV. Dairy cattle genetics and breeding, adaptation and conservation., , 104–113, 1990
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