By means of appropriate serologic and electrophoretic tests, a great variety of polymorphic marker loci are recognized in the blood and other body fluids of cattle. The serologically recognized markers are: 1. Red cell antigens or blood groups, 2. Lymphocyte antigens mainly belonging to the bovine MHC complex, BoLA, and 3. Allotypic antigens carried by immunoglobulins and other blood proteins. The electrophoretically determined markers are generally referred to as protein polymorphisms and constitute multiple molecular forms of a variety of enzymes and proteins found in blood, milk and other body fluids.

B. Larsen, V. Simonsen

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIV. Dairy cattle genetics and breeding, adaptation and conservation., , 521–524, 1990
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