There has been rapid and widespread uptake of beef crossbreeding over the past 25 years in most temperate regions of developed countries. While there are still several important areas to be researched, these are
 generally not considered major obstacles to the effective use of crossbreeding. In these temperate areas, the main
 limitations to achieving effective crossbreeding programs appear to be, in order of priority: small herd size, and
 lack of resources given to cattle on mixed enterprise properties. These limitations cannot be overcome easily, though the use of composite breeds and simple crossing systems are recommended options. Other limitations include: lack of knowledge by cattle breeders, and a paucity of replacement Fj females available for purchase. In tropical regions with extensive management systems there is a much lower use of crossbreeding. In tropical Australia, for example, only 10-30% of properties are practising crossbreeding. Herd size and competition for resources from other enterprises, are not such important obstacles to adoption in the tropics. Bigger obstacles involve: the need to use stress resistant cattle such as Bos indicus breeds, and the difficulties of using Bos taurus bulls for crossing; lack of facilities for controlled mating; and lack of knowledge by cattle breeders of appropriate systems. 

B. Sundstrom, R. Barlow, Paul F Arthur

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 280–287, 1994
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