International as well as national programmes of genetic improvement can be successful in meeting national market requirements. Both approaches have their own problems which can be dealt with adequately or not. Differences in marginal economic values of traits between countries, and the impact of these on selection efficiency, suggest that differences between markets are not extremely important. These differences however have a major impact on product design using available lines/breeds. Genetic improvement programmes have to take existing and future (uncertain) market requirements into account. Line development strategy, based on an adequate number of lines, is important, but no straightforward procedure exists to develop such a strategy. The line development programmes of national and international breeding organisations will however have a major impact on their future success. 

H. AM van der Steen, P. W Knap, M. Bichard

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 402–405, 1994
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