The breed structure was analysed by means of four generation pedigrees of calves registered in 1980 and 1990.  The structure of the breed had a pyramidal shape for both 1980 and 1990.  During 1980 there was a higher intesnity of gene flow from the top strata downwards than in 1990.  No gene flow from the bottom to the top was found.

H. C Els, C. M van Zyl, F. JC Swanepoel

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 254–257, 1994
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