Domesticated strains o f Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) has an old breeding history and formed so called landraces as a result of different environmental conditions and the conscious selection work of fish culturists. One of the most important primary condition of intensive pond fish culture is the highly productive strain or hybrid with fast growth, good viability, economical food conversion, favourable slaughtery value and good quality of meat. Since 1962 thirty different genotypes of common carp has been collected and maintained in the Fish Culture Research Institute. Comparative testing of this landraces demonstrated consistently inherited quantitative characteristics. The main parts of our breeding program are as follows: - Collecting different genotypes of common carp including Hungarian and foreign landraces. - Selecting and inbreeding the most productive lines, using traditional selection methods and artificial gynogenezis completed with hormonal sexreversion. - Crossing experiments, producing two,- three and four lines hybrids, to find out useful heterosis effects. - Comparative testing of hybrid groups under pond and laboratory conditions. More than hundred crossing combinations were valuated and three outstanding hybrids has been found. The "Szarvas 215" mirror carp as a three-line hybrid showed 20-25% higher productivity than the parental strains. The "Szarvasi P31" and "Szarvasi P34" scaly hybrids represents good growth rate and wide adaptability to different environmental conditions and become high quality crossbreed o f intensive pond fish culture and natural waters as well. In the last phase o f our long-term breeding program the parental lines of hybrids are reproduced, reared and the fish hatcheries and commercial fish farms are provided with selected broodfish of outstanding hybrids.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 19. Selection and quantitative genetics; growth; reproduction; lactation; fish; fiber; meat., , 383–386, 1994
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