Litter traits were clarified as the measurements on the multiple individuals in the litters rather than litter dams. The genetic variance on litter traits was partitioned into ones of litter dam and service sire, and covariance between female and service sire. The estimations of the variance and covariance were demonstrated by the analysis on 773 observations on number of larva in Tribolium castaneum pedigree individuals.

Wang YaChun, Zhang ZhiWu, Tang DinGen, Ma YueHui

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 26: Quantitative genetic theory; selection theory and experiments; internationalisation of breeding programs; detection of quant, , 61–64, 1998
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