Maternal effects can be defined the same as Phenotype = Genotype + Environment (Lynch and Walsh, 1998). By defining P as maternal effects, G is equal to maternal genetic effects (dam genotype) which can be separated into additive maternal genetic and cytoplasmic effects (Southwood et al.,1989), and E is maternal environment or maternal ability such as intrauterine and postpartum nutrition provided by the dam, antibodies and pathogens transmitted from dam to her offspring, and maternal behavior (Albuquerque et al.,1998). The genetic models can now be correctly partitioned into variations due to additive direct, additive maternal, cytoplasmic, and nonadditive effects. The objective was to quantify and compare the contribution of additive direct and maternal genetic effects to phenotypic variances of milk yield and milk composition in a crossbred dairy herd when the models were applied to field data. 

C. Khatiworavage, C. Reodecha, W. Himarat

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 2002. Session 1, , 1.88, 2002
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