In dairy cattle breeding the genomic selection (GS) has been adapted fast.  Many countries use almost only genomic selected young bulls, and almost all bulls entering AI have GS bulls as sires.  The shift into full GS has been fastest in Holstein, while in the other breeds lower accuracy of genomic evaluations has hindered the change.  The research on  methodology has not proven variable selection methods or high density genotyping overwhelming, and most the evaluations are based on genomic relationship BLUP. The trend is to genotype more and more cows and  cows are included in the reference population, or planning is to move into single-step type of evaluations.  The use of younger bulls and bull sires can lead into higher increase in inbreeding than before. Another danger to genetic diversity is the problems in implementing genomic selection with smaller,  other than Holstein, breeds.

Esa A Mäntysaari

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume Genetic Improvement Programs: Selection using molecular information, , 079, 2014
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